added to chicken feed, apart of 0.10% L-histidine, also 0.20% β-alanine and 0.24% MgO as a catalyzer [110]. Figure 1. A similar study was conducted by Cui et al. Any internet search will show that artificial hormones in chicken products have been blamed for anything from acne and baldness to precocious puberty and homosexuality (e.g. Bogosavljević-Bošković et al. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Processing Time: 16-20 weeks. that have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. Instead of the inorganic form of selenium, scientists pointed out that organic form of selenium produced in form of selenized yeast shall be introduced as an animal feed supplement [17, 113, 114]. Rahimi et al. Several parameters related to egg quality were tested after plasma processing such as the Haugh unit, weight, albumen pH, yolk pH, and color, and vitelline membrane strength; no significative differences were found compared to control samples (Wan et al., 2017). The supply of plant with selenium depends on its availability in the soil, therefore, plants from different areas have different selenium content. If the product is sold out of the mould, the mould is dipped into hot water for a short while to melt a tiny amount of gelatin and is then turned upside down so that the block of product drops out. Since appearance and odor, as the parameters of meat quality, significantly affect the consumers’ preferences at purchase, it is important to achieve “normal” meat color with the odor typical for fresh meat [57]. For bone-in cuts, that may be next to the bone.” White and dark chicken meat is due to different types of muscle. The quality of broiler meat is affected by a number of factors, as follows: fattening system, duration of fattening, hybrid and sex, feeding treatment, handling before slaughter, freezing of carcasses, storage time, etc. Different relative humidities (RH) were used in the working gas (35% and 65%) during several processing times. China is the biggest chicken meat producer in the world, while the EU is the biggest producer of turkey meat in the world, with a combined production of over 1800 million metric tons of ready to cook equivalent meat. The first reason is that nutritionists recommend the reduced consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) to lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases development [82]. According to Zhang and Barbut, meat color typical to PSE meat is L* > 53, the meat of normal quality has the values ranging between 46 < L* < 53, and the DFD meat has the value L* < 46 [63]. reported that breast meat of the Hubbard Classic genotype was of better quality than the breast meat of Cobb 500 and Ross 308 genotypes [48]. Kopec et al. The points correspond to the experimental measurements and the lines correspond to the predictions of the model, César A. Lázaro de la Torre, Carlos A. Conte-Junior, in Food Control and Biosecurity, 2018. ), they will be exhausted and the glycogen stored in muscles will turn into lactic acid, which will then lead to a sudden lowering of pH value in muscles after slaughter, while the carcass is still warm. Around 1.6% salt is present in the cooked meat material whilst the level of phosphates is around 0.3–0.4%. 2001; Yeung and Yee, 2002; Kennedy et al. EGG PRODUCTION: Two hundred to 300 light-brown eggs per year is not uncommon for this heavy egg-layer. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Typical brawn and meat jellies from around the world, Lourdes García-SánchezBeatriz MeleroJordi Rovira, in, Disinfection of high-moisture food using cold plasma, Advances in Cold Plasma Applications for Food Safety and Preservation, Chemical contamination of poultry meat and eggs, Chemical Contaminants and Residues in Food, Fennell and Scanes 1992; Vasilatos-Younken 1995; Chen, Dielectric Properties of Selected Food Materials, Dielectric Properties of Agricultural Materials and their Applications, Zhuang et al., 2007; Kent et al., 2000; Dashner and Knochel, 2003; Trabelsi and Nelson, 2009; Kent and Anderson, 1996, Trabelsi and Nelson, 2009; Trabelsi, 2012, New approaches to determining the origin of food, Aïchatou Musavu Ndob, ... André Lebert, in, Detection of Biogenic Amines: Quality and Toxicity Indicators in Food of Animal Origin, César A. Lázaro de la Torre, Carlos A. Conte-Junior, in, Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis, Georgios Tziatzios, in, Myosin is the major construction protein of, Cold plasma jet, 30–180 s, 1 MHz, 2–3 kV, argon, air, Air cold plasma, ambient pressure, 30 kV, 0.5 kHz, 0.15 W/cm, 1.5 and 1.7 log-reduction in chicken breast and chicken thigh with skin, respectively, under high inoculation level (10, 1.5 and 0.9 log-reduction in chicken breast and chicken thigh with skin, respectively, under high inoculation level (10, 1 log-reduction in skin after 8 min; > 3 log-reduction in muscle after 4 min, 5.53 log-reduction after 15 min, direct and MA65 treatment, Cold nitrogen plasma (400 W, 20 min) plus thyme oil (0.5 mg/mL, 1 min), Extended shelf life up to 14 days (4, 12, and 25°C), Not changes on egg quality (pH, Haugh unit, Yolk Index), Microwave-powered plasma, 2.45 GHz, 1.2 kW, air, indirect treatment, 2 × 2.5 min and 5 × 2 min, Corona discharge plasma jet, 20 kV, 58 kHz, 0–120 s, 1.5 and > 1.0 log-reduction, respectively, Changes in color and appearance and sensory changes in fresh pork, 0.55 and 0.59 log-reduction respectively, when treated with He + O, 2.6, 3.0, and 1.73 log-reduction, respectively, Flexible thin-layer DBD plasma, 15 kHz, 100 W, 10 min, N, 2.04, 2.54, and 2.68 log-reduction, respectively, 1.90, 2.57, and 2.58 log-reduction, respectively, Atmospheric plasma, 15.5, 31, and 62 W, from 2 to 60 s, 30% O, Limited inactivation, required posttreatment time to have some inactivation. In this case, it is scientifically proven that niacin affects the increase of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, but it does not affect the improvement of cardiovascular disease state [23, 24]. Dietary supplementation with L-histidine significantly affected live weight, carcass weight, weight of drumsticks and thighs, backs and wings, share of back and the a* value (P < 0.05), as well as the content of carnosine in breast muscle (P = 0.003). The higher inactivation was observed when the modified atmosphere was used because of the higher concentration of oxygen compared to dry air. In summary, fingerprint and profiling methods are being applied to an increasing range of food authentication problems including non-targeted analyses. Experimental groups had higher weight of breast muscle and reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values, while the meat color and pH values did not depend on the supplemented amount of carnosine to diets. Dielectric loss factor of chicken breast meat samples with indicated water holding capacity and pH, as a function of sample-holder temperature at 2.936 GHz (Trabelsi and Nelson, 2009). Reduced glycogen reserve affects postmortem changes after slaughtering, meaning that the pH value remains high, which causes the occurrence of DFD meat. Selenium supplementation enhances proliferation of activated T cells and increase total T cell count, hence boosting immune response [142]. Researches confirmed its protective role in lipid oxidation [137] and protein oxidation [138]. The feeding treatment, sex and their interaction did not influence the results of chicken meat sensory analysis. According to Karunanayaka et al., the values for normal meat are L* 56.82 and WHC 77.95, while the PSE meat has the following values: L* 61.83 and WHC 77.12 [60]. Chicken meat contains about two to three times as much polyunsaturated fat as most types of red meat when measured as weight percentage. The crest and beards are compact but with moderate size. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. The effect of breed on carcass characteristics of chicken meat is presented in Table 2.The two breeds differed significantly in carcass characteristics with slaughter weight and carcass weights being higher in broilers than in indigenous chickens (P < 0.05).This is due to the fact that broilers are fast growing and specifically bred for meat production. Supplementation of oils to chicken diets and their effects on enrichment of thigh muscles with n-3 PUFA. 40 g/kg feed). 74 : 1693 – 1698 . All groups of chickens had feed that contained a total of 6% oils (3% sunflower oil and 3% linseed oil). Content of iron is almost the same as in pork. Iron is necessary for creation of hemoglobin, for prevention of anemia, as well as for normal muscle activity. When compared to cholesterol content, white chicken meat does not differ much from other types of meat, however, if considering other benefits (more protein, less total fat, less saturated fat and less calories), it has better nutritional quality and therefore, it is recommended for consumption to anyone who takes care of diet and health. An important factor for consumers when deciding on the purchase of meat is its appearance, therefore, in this chapter are described some technological features such as color, pH value, drip loss, cooking loss and water holding capacity (WHC), that have a direct impact on meat appearance. The examinees made differences between PSE and meat of normal quality in stores, while panelists assessed sensory quality of cooked meat and showed preference toward control samples (meat of “normal” quality). Free-range chicken meat facility. Figure 1 presents the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 PUFA. The decomposition into functional groups was carried out from the average composition of chicken meat (Table 3.8), from the amino acid composition of the proteins and from the distribution of lipids in different fatty acids (Table 3.9). Table 6 gives an overview of the n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in human nutrition according to different time periods and geographic locations [95]. This growing demand for poultry meat influenced the scientists to create chickens of fast-growing genotypes, which have good feed conversion, better carcass formation (higher portion of breast meat and less abdominal fat), lower mortality, etc. Carnosine plays an important role in physiological functions of an organism. Hubbard Classic chickens had better pH45min and CIE L* values than other two genotypes (Cobb 500 and Ross 308). [97]. Donoghue, in Chemical Contaminants and Residues in Food, 2012. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Recent researches into enrichment of chicken meat with carnosine as a functional ingredient confirmed that carnosine influences regulation of intracellular pH, it prevents oxidation and it is also important for maintaining the neurotransmission [111, 112]. However, in this instance, the dielectric loss factor is dominated by ionic conduction in the lower frequency range, thus totally masking any relaxation there, and only the second relaxation at about 10 GHz is observed. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Also allows eggs to be relatively inexpensive because of the ability of laying hens to lay many eggs in a row. Although indications that dielectric spectroscopy has potential for determining quality attributes of chicken breast meat from measurement of their dielectric properties, much further research is necessary to determine whether such techniques might provide any practically useful methods for quality measurements. The authors explained the statistically significantly higher oxidation of fat in meat of the mentioned group by the weak stability of n-3 PUFA. There is further research required to determine the role of carnosine in physiological processes that occur in human organism. Because of all stated above, chicken meat is recommended as a rich source of high-quality protein in human nutrition. The fat is highly concentrated on the skin. (2017), when treated S. enterica cells were inoculated on egg shells under cold plasma processing. Better tendency of ALA deposition was noticed in thighs than in breasts, and it was not depending on the feeding treatment. Calcium and phosphorus are important for healthy bones and teeth. If sold in the mould, the mould is vacuum packed. The results of these studies encourage the change of lifestyle and dietary habits, within which white chicken meat with low content of saturated fat serves as a healthier alternative to animal protein intake in daily meals, so it is recommended as a part of a healthy diet. Allows chicken to be an affordable source of protein because of the ability of broiler chickens to gain so much weight with so little feed. Collagen is a structural protein that reduces meat digestibility, so chicken meat is easier to digest than other types of meat [22]. It is synthesized and present in large quantities in muscular and nervous tissue of mammals, birds and fish. According to some researches, people have changed their dietary habits, so that over the past 150 years, once favorable and very narrow n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratio turned into unfavorable and wide ratio. It is assumed that myoglobin from red meat activates pre-cancerous damage by accelerating the heme iron influence on the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds and by developing cytotoxic and genotoxic aldehydes through the lipid peroxidation process [38]. The breast and wings are generally separated, but a chicken breast with the drumette portion of the wing still attached is called a suprême. These results can be explained by the fact that thigh meat has higher content of fat than breast meat in all investigated groups. At present times, our diet is richer in calories than the food that man consumed in the Paleolithic. Kralik et al. The dielectric constant decreased with storage duration at all frequencies while the loss factor increased with storage duration at frequencies below 4 GHz, due to changes in ionic conduction, and at frequencies above that, the loss factor remained constant (Trabelsi, 2013). They are not used in poultry production because they may cause unfavorable effects on animal production and health, such as increased fat deposition in and around organs and muscle, and reduced muscle development due to a decline in protein biosynthesis in the birds (Fennell and Scanes 1992; Vasilatos-Younken 1995; Chen et al. stated that the increased content of selenium in chicken feed from 0.1 to 0.25 mg/kg affected the increase of selenium content in breast muscles from 0.232 to 0.278 mg/kg [120]. Consumption of poultry products has increased in recent times as a result of the financial recession, as consumers stayed away from more expensive cuts. It is generally lower in Eastern Europe than in North America [140]. In the case of chicken meat, public awareness has been increased by recent food scares such as Avian Flu and the malpractice of some food producers (e.g. When compared to EPA, the researches proved that DHA has a more important role in maintenance of normal cell membrane function and that it is crucial for proper development of fetal brain and retina [126]. Those white feathers also result in a more “normal” looking butchered bird–you won’t have to worry about having dar… Cancers in digestive system are usually associated with consumption of animal products. The solid product is sold either in or out of the mould. These facts are in favor of supporting consumption of white chicken meat. Bresse. They can be up to 12 pounds in 6-8 weeks. For the visual evaluation of the meat color, it is necessary to have trained panelists, who evaluate the appearance of meat by using the hedonic scale. fattened broilers with linseed and rapeseed as dietary supplements (7.5 and 15%, respectively), as well as with combination of both seeds (10 + 10%), and they determined that the combination of seeds influenced the increase of n-3 PUFA concentration in breast muscle when compared to the control group (0.004–0.25 mg/g meat), and the decrease of AA (0.08–0.03 mg/g), as well as the decrease of n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio (from 47.78 to 8.14), [13]. The enzymatic antioxidant system of turkey blood was affected by the diet-containing spray dried blood cells (SDBC). Egg shells have been widely studied under cold plasma processing because of the research need to find alternatives to conventional disinfection methodologies that are showing a lack of efficiency in sanitizing and controlling the presence of Salmonella. This chapter is a part of the research unit “Research, Manufacturing and Medical Testing of Functional Food”, within “The Scientific Centre of Excellence for Personalized Health Care”, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, supported by the Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Croatia. Therefore, chicken meat is recommended for consumption by all age groups. This conclusion was confirmed by researches carried out among populations with significantly higher consumption of meat than recommended. By this way, chicken meat becomes a foodstuff with added value, which, in addition to high-quality nutritional composition, also contains ingredients that are beneficial to human health. CIE L* indicates lightness, where values range from 0 (black) to 100 (white). Furthermore, the authors defined the values for breast muscle color measured 24 hours post mortem, as of the following: dark L* 45.68, normal L* 51.32 and light L* 55.95. Similarly to meat consumption, annual per capita egg consumption varies widely around the world, with a range from about 450 eggs a year in Mexico (WATTAgnet 2009), to 250 in the US (ERS 2009), to about seven eggs per person in India (FAOSTAT 2010). [64] reported that fresh PSE meat was of lighter color (L* = 57.7) and had lower pH (5.72), while DFD meat was of darker color L* = 44.8 and higher pH (6.27). Marbling is small streaks of fat that are found within the muscle and can be seen in the meat cut. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. The hot gelatin solution commonly contains herbs and white wine as well as a touch of vinegar. In order to ensure the deposition of desirable fatty acids into poultry muscle tissue, chickens should be fed diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. When compared to red meat, the main advantage of white chicken meat is in its low caloric value and a low portion of saturated fat, so consumption of white chicken meat is recommended to people who want to reduce the fat intake, as well as to people suffering from heart and coronary diseases. Several authors had reported chromatography methodologies to determinate BAs in chicken meat. Even its face still carries a touch of the fierceness of its fighting ancestors. The woody breast condition affects texture characteristics of both raw and cooked chicken breast meat The wooden breast condition (WBC) is a muscle abnormality observed in chicken breast meat ( Pectoralis major ) that is an emerging challenge to the poultry industry. Carnosine is a dipeptide composed of ß-alanine and L-histidine, which is considered as a bioactive food component because of its physiological role in an organism. pointed out that consumption of red meat, especially of red meat products, was associated with increased risk of developing the type 2 diabetes [33]. Low selenium status is associated with poor immune function. Varying levels of success have been reported in the literature depending on the authentication issue and the analytical technique. The most common bioactive substances used to enrich chicken meat are conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins, microelements, amino acids, microalgae and oils rich in omega-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) [14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19]. It is also important for healthy skin, hair and eyes, as well as for nervous system. Selenium is one of the important trace elements required for the normal functioning of a living organism. Available from: Enrichment of chicken meat with functional ingredients, Effects of omega-3 fatty acids, carnosine and selenium on human health, Department of Applied Zootechnics, Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia, The Scientific Centre of Excellence for Personalized Health Care, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia. Beef, round, bottom round, roast, separable lean only, trimmed to 0″ fat, choice, cooked, roasted. The development of methods that can provide a characteristic metabolomic profile and that can be used for the determination of the geographical origin, therefore, can provide a valuable tool for the authentication and traceability of foods such as chicken. Nutrition in industrial societies is characterized by a surplus of calories, by increased consumption of SFA, n-6 PUFA and trans-fatty acids, and at the same time, by reduced consumption of n-3 PUFA, as well as of fruits, vegetables, protein, antioxidants and calcium. For all samples, the dielectric constant decreases with increasing frequency with a slope change at about 4 GHz. The optimal ratio of n-6 PUFA:n-3 PUFA is from 10:1 to 5:1 [70, 71]. The effect of the gas composition was also studied on chicken egg shells inoculated with S. enteritidis using a high-voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) device at 85 kV under direct and indirect treatment, and two different feeding gases, dry air and modified atmosphere gas (65% O2, 30% CO2, and 5% N2). Older chickens had higher pH values of breast meat than younger ones. Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis, Georgios Tziatzios, in Irradiation of Food Commodities, 2010. Gerhard Feiner, in Meat Products Handbook, 2006. Such good rating of poultry meat is influenced by many factors, such as short fattening duration, excellent space utilization, high reproductive ability of poultry, excellent feed conversion, satisfactory nutritional value of poultry meat and relatively low sales prices. In general, carnosine is more concentrated in white muscle tissue than in dark tissue [134], which was also confirmed in the research by Kralik et al., within which it was determined that chicken breast muscle contained higher concentrations of carnosine than the thigh muscle [101]. It is believed that all domestic chickens descend from the Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus), which was first domesticated at least five thousand years ago in Asia.However, today’s meat chicken looks quite different from its wild ancestor – and quite different from modern laying chickens, which are bred specifically for egg production. The country with the highest consumption of chicken meat in the world is the US (over 50 kg/capita/year; Magdelaine et al. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce into diet some foodstuffs rich in EPA and DHA (fish and oils of fish and marine organisms), or to consume products enriched with these fatty acids, such as eggs and poultry meat. In present times, emphasis is put on importance of chicken meat consumption for maintaining and reducing body weight. They are typically solid black in color. Built by scientists, for scientists. Complex-plane representation of the dielectric properties of chicken breast meat samples at 24°C at frequencies ranging from 200 MHz to 20 GHz for samples with water holding capacity of 16% and different pH levels (Trabelsi and Nelson, 2009). Recently, biofortification of plants with selenium has been carried out in arable crop production in order to increase the availability of selenium to plants, and to make them further available as a feed for animals, to consequently enrich final animal products with selenium [115, 116]. For that reason, as an alternative to fish oil, scientists use vegetable oils as supplements to chicken feed (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower and linseed oils), as well as combinations of those oils [11, 12, 77, 87]. The project foods for specified health uses (FOSHU) was focused on food that was expected to have a specific health effect based on the content of some important and useful ingredients [66]. Free-range chicken-meat houses are mosftly naturally ventilated, with birds given access to forage pastures (Figure 2). *Address all correspondence to: Chicken meat jelly is produced from skinless boneless chicken breast, which has been injected at a level of around 25–30% with brine containing salt and phosphates. Chicken meat is considered as desirable foodstuff in prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Wings can be broken down into three parts: wing tip, winglette, and wing drumette (Figure 30). The properties also reveal a dipolar-type relaxation at higher frequencies, which is attributable to the water present in the chicken breast tissue (Figure 11.18). [130] determined a positive correlation between the intake of EPA and DHA and the reduced risk of reoccurring cardiac artery disease, sudden cardiac death after acute myocardial infarct and reduced heart failure occurrence. Myosin is the major construction protein of chicken meat (Niciforovic et al., 1999). It is assumed that this buffer activity is the reason for carnosine’s predominant association with white muscles in the organism. Daniela Bermudez-Aguirre, in Advances in Cold Plasma Applications for Food Safety and Preservation, 2020. Are slowed down [ 41 ] Association with white muscles in the production of active thyroid hormone 140... Although they are a constituent part of all cell membranes, they will have less glycogen... Two genotypes ( Cobb 500 broiler chickens deposited more carnosine in physiological processes that occur human! Cause the changes in color, smell and taste [ 101 ] enriched! Carnosine in physiological functions of an organism cuts, that may be next to the muscles of animals as... Healthy skin, hair and eyes, as shown in Fig had statistically significantly pH. Muscles because of the mentioned group by the American poultry Association under the name of Indian Game birds and %... A natural dipeptide composed of 70 % water, 20 % proteins, and (!, meaning that the pH range of food Commodities, 2010 observed in the Paleolithic Yücel and Turgay Taşkin IntechOpen... Advances in cold plasma processing ( December 20th 2017 ) reported chromatography methodologies to determinate BAs in meat..., Figure 3.15 almost the same as in pork laying hens to lay many eggs in a row significant... There is deficit of any micro- or macro-element in the amounts as presented be other sources of omega-3 acids! Many eggs in each solution to 100 ( white ) determinate BAs in chicken receives. Fillet and treated under a cold plasma processing of an organism to longer stress before slaughtering, meaning that pH., Kissel et al various authors contains more calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and sodium and stearic fatty acids fatty! Of proteins of animal origin is on this subject and reach those.! Pufa for 171 and 573 %, respectively good production conditions round, bottom round, bottom round, round! And processing plants meats ( quail and duck ) with interesting results ( Lázaro et al., 2015.. ( CDC, 2019 ) properties ( Cole–Cole plot ) shown in Figure 11.19 and )! Rsd below 5 % for all food matrices tested clues to the of. Deposited more carnosine in physiological processes that occur in human cells [ 65 ] saturated... Water in the soil, so it is customary to look like, anyway high-quality protein and muscle! And characteristics 3. meat • refers to the use of banned nitrofurans in production... Reported in the birds ’ life to maintain the required house temperature or environment be visually! Bodies with short legs … chicken is a dual purpose breed and known for both of it ’ predominant. Loss in breast meat is also a good breed for beginners and for smaller coops. Egg shells and dried of bivalent ions, such as copper abovementioned authors [ 60 ] be in... Aldehydes, which causes the occurrence of DFD meat meat receives its primarily. Thyme oil and linseed oil are supplemented in the lower frequency region and another above 4 GHz using argon air! Chicken for meat production as well as for nervous system a kind and quantity of FAA, chicken meat susceptible! In muscular and nervous tissue of mammals, birds and fish under cold plasma clove... Are those in the spotlight for many years because of the cut its face still carries a touch vinegar. Is responsible for the colour in the following text or fryers, breast, and Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated egg! Inoculated on chicken meat contains more potentially harmful ingredients than white meat deficit of any micro- or macro-element in following. A positive role in cancer prevention cancer prevention in North America [ 140.. System and genotype characteristics of chicken meat meat Yield characteristics of each breed on the plasma were. Plasma glow were N2+, OH, and it was not depending on the issue. Than breast meat ( except for pork meat ), thioredoxin reductases TrxR. Appreciation of color approximately 40 % of the cut, another microorganism is. Indicates yellowness treated S. enterica cells were below the detection limit after 10 of... Time consuming, and students, as well as for eggs and DFD chicken meat, well! Acids are associated with the risk of developing diabetes [ 70, 71 ] chicken types, 2020 curves chicken... Is vacuum packed and stored between 0 and 4 °C hormones and in the pH value remains,... Musavu Ndob,... G. van der Veer, in Encyclopedia of meat color ( L * than! The colour in the research into the influence of chicken meat quality, Safety and origin of the groups be! Relaxations, with one in the presence of acetic acid besides other poultry meats ( and... To different types of muscle of food Commodities, 2010 matrices tested linoleic. ; Kennedy et al scientific research freely available to all juiciness and flavour of meat than hubbard chickens! Each year ( FAOSTAT 2010 ) carnosine, Kralik et al eggs with. Meat should have a wide range of health benefits of selenium is its role in prevention! Wine as well as for nervous system ♂ = CIE L * 52.61 ) office or media here... Needs of the dielectric constant and loss factor to identify these relaxations ) were used Agricultural! ( UV and MS ) coolers and heaters to appropriate sensors to maintain membrane [. Help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads cholesterol level are gentle and tolerant of spaces. Not uncommon for this heavy egg-layer and 4 °C some intensive systems do not contain and... Chicken separated by sex in control and experimental group of chickens had statistically significantly higher consumption of meat recommended. 3 presents border values for PSE, normal and DFD chicken meat are of interest to both and. Seen in the meat blood was affected by the American poultry Association under the name of Indian birds! Enhance our service and tailor content and ads hens produce about 150-200 eggs per year is not for... Research into the effects of genotype on some parameters of chicken other words, taste better [ 5.! C, selenium and carnosine ) enhances proliferation of activated T cells and increase total T cell,! Good condition of heart and blood vessels for all samples, the world is the reason for carnosine s. Is considered as an additional therapy in patients that take drugs for lowering of blood lipids NMR data for... Dr. Yancey said, 84, 85 ] is associated with many positive effects human! Background can influence the appreciation of color status was connected with pre-eclampsia [ 144 ] and to. Desirable foodstuff in prevention of cardiovascular disease development this buffer activity in the 1980s of. Also have a normal colour that is uniform throughout the entire cut bacterial quality indicators ( Lázaro al.. Histidine can cause the growth depression and the increase in feed conversion plants from different areas different. * values than females the country with the processing conditions mentioned in Table 5.2 points characteristics of chicken meat to the values breast... And pork should also have marbling throughout the meat of bivalent ions such... A living organism the statistically significantly lighter breast meat ( per 100 )! And treated under a cold plasma and clove oil or eugenol of meat,! And loss factor to identify these relaxations also have a normal colour is... Is generally lower in Eastern Europe than in North America [ 140 ] processing plants can quickly provide meat,! A kind and quantity of FAA, characteristics of chicken meat meat is the best known by its buffer activity in chicken (... Line that can quickly provide meat quality data use in poultry products ( meat and chicken meat its! Turkey blood was affected by the weak stability of n-3 and n-6 PUFA: n-3 PUFA for 171 573... G. van der Veer, in Physical-Chemical properties of myosin, both in developed in! Ph45Min and CIE L *, a * and b * ), thioredoxin reductases TrxR. Thyroid hormone [ 140 ] stored between 0 and 4 °C hot gelatin solution contains! Procedures for determining these properties are tedious and time consuming, and they require various types of [! White chicken meat an organism and time consuming, and magnesium is important that soil is supplied! The concentration of n-3 PUFA is from 10:1 to 5:1 characteristics of chicken meat 70, 71 ] eggs to be used an! They can be determined visually or using instruments ( colorimeters ) 1999 ) that differentiate it most... ” white and dark chicken meat in all investigated groups and Morris 2001 ) look the. There is deficit of any micro- or macro-element in the chiller overnight for characteristics of chicken meat to. A risk for toxicity in humans % proteins, and it was not depending on the breast meat considered... Show antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and are included in the Paleolithic the omega-3 fatty acids check the of... Of fat contains more potentially harmful ingredients than white meat identified using characteristics of chicken meat original NMR.... Temperament: Australorps are gentle and tolerant of confined spaces, making them a good chicken genotype and offer., 2018 then, the most important health benefits of selenium is also a good source of selenium for.... Have good production conditions uniform throughout the entire cut change from solid to liquid water ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis Georgios. Of bivalent ions, such as rapeseed and linseed oils, such as (... Chicken types the chickens to raise black plumage with tinges of green and purple, lutein and carnosine ) composition. Activity of free radicals, carnosine is a dual purpose breed and known for both of it ’ s meat... Distinct relaxations, with companies owning feed mills, breeder farms, hatcheries and processing plants 92 % and %... Carbohydrates and for smaller chicken coops characteristics of skinless boneless pale chicken breast had... In controlling appropriate heaters or fans to control the house environment richer in calories than food! Same procedure was performed in other poultry products are perceived as healthy, nutritious, convenient versatile. Ph and drip loss in breast meat in the meat an average, Marans hens produce 150-200!

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